in the Modern World
Estimates of the number of Buddhists vary
between 230 and 500 million, with 350 million as the most commonly
Buddhism in Modern Asia
In northern Asia, Mahayana remains the most common form of Buddhism
in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, (parts of) Indonesia
and Singapore. Theravada predominates in most of Southeast Asia,
including Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, as well as Sri
Lanka. It has seats in Malaysia and Singapore. Vajrayana is predominant
in Tibet, Mongolia, portions of Siberia and portions of India,
especially those areas bordering Tibet. Kalmykia, while geographically
located in Europe, is culturally closely related to Mongolia
and thus its Buddhism is more properly grouped with Asian than
with Western Buddhism.
While in the West Buddhism is often seen as exotic and progressive,
in the East Buddhism is regarded as familiar and part of the establishment.
Buddhist organizations in Asia frequently are well-funded and enjoy
support from the wealthy and influential. In some cases, this has
led critics to charge that certain monks and organizations are
too closely associated with the powerful and are neglecting their
duties to the poor.
Buddhism and the West
In the latter half of the 19th century, Buddhism (along with many
other of the world's religions and philosophies) came to the
attention of Western intellectuals. These included the pessimistic
German philosopher Schopenhauer and the American philosopher
Henry David Thoreau, who translated a Buddhist sutra from French
into English. German writer Hermann Hesse also showed great interest
in the eastern religion, even writing a book entitled Siddhartha.
Spiritual enthusiasts enjoyed what they saw as the exotic and
mystical tone of the Asian traditions. At first Western Buddhology
was hampered by poor translations (often translations of translations),
but soon Western scholars began to learn Asian languages and
translate Asian texts. In 1880 J.R. de Silva and Henry Steel
Olcott designed the International Buddhist flag to celebrate
the revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Its stripes symbolize universal
compassion, the middle path, blessings, purity and liberation,
wisdom, and the conglomeration of these. The flag was accepted
as the International Buddhist Flag by the 1952 World Buddhist
In 1899 Gordon Douglas became the first Westerner to be ordained
as a Buddhist monk.
First Buddhists in the United States
The first Buddhists to arrive in the United States were Chinese.
Hired as cheap labor for the railroads and other expanding industries,
they established temples in their settlements along the rail
lines. See the article on Buddhism in America for further information.
The Buddhist Society, London was founded by Christmas Humphreys
The cultural re-evaluations of the hippie generation in the late
1960s and early 1970s led to a re-discovery of Buddhism, which
seemed to promise a natural path to awareness and enlightenment.
Many people, including celebrities, traveled to Asia in pursuit
of gurus and ancient wisdom. Buddhism had become the fastest-growing
religion in Australia and many other Western nations by the 1990s,
in contrast to the steady decline of traditional western beliefs
feature of Buddhism has been the continuous evolution of the
as it was transmitted from one country to another.
This dynamic aspect is particularly evident today in the West.
Chögyam Trungpa, the founder of the Shambhala meditation movement,
claimed in his teachings that his intention was to strip the ethnic
baggage away form traditional methods of working with the mind
and to deliver the essence of those teachings to his western students.
Another example of a school evolving new idioms for the transmission
of the dharma is the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order, founded
by Sangharakshita. Lama Surya Das is a prominent Western-born teacher
continuing to bring the teachings of Buddhism to Westerners.
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