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Securities: Debt and Equity

Securities are traditionally divided into debt securities and equities.

Debt
The holder of a debt security is owed a debt by the issuer and is entitled to the payment of principal and interest, together with other personal rights under the terms of the issue, such as the right to receive certain information. Debt securities are generally issued for a fixed term and redeemable by the issuer at the end of that term.

Treasury bonds are medium or long term debt securities issued by sovereign governments or their agencies. Typically they carry a lower rate of interest than corporate bonds. In addition to serving as a source of finance for governments, treasuries are used to manage the money supply in the money market operations of central banks.

Money market instruments are short term debt instruments, such as certificates of deposit, commercial paper and certain bills of exchange. They are highly liquid and are sometimes referred to as "near cash".

Eurosecurities are securities issued internationally outside their domestic market. They include eurobonds and euronotes. Eurobonds are characteristically underwritten, and not secured, and interest is paid gross. A euronote may take the form of euro-commercial paper (ECP) or euro-certificates of deposit.

> Bond
> Debenture
> Mortgage Backed Securities

Equity
An equity is an ordinary share in a company. The holder of an equity is a shareholder, owning a share, or fractional part of the issuer.

> Stock

Hybrid
Hybrid securities combine some of the characteristics of both debt and equity securities.

Preference shares form an intermediate class of security between equities and debt. If the issuer is liquidated, they carry the right to receive interest and/or a return of capital in priority to ordinary shareholders.

Convertibles are bonds which can be converted, at the election of the bondholder, into another sort of security such as equities.

Equity warrants are contractual entitlements to purchase shares on pre-determined terms. They are often issued together with bonds or existing equities, but are detachable from them and separately tradeable.

 
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