History: The Twentieth Century
The twentieth century saw the domination
of the world by Europe wane, and the United States and the Soviet
Union rise as superpowers. After 1990 the Soviet Union collapsed
and the United States became what some have termed a hyperpower.
and the Soviet Union Superpower
The century saw the rise of powerful ideologies. First with communism
in the Soviet Union after 1917, which spread to Eastern Europe after
1945, and China in 1949, and scattered other nations in the Third World
during the 1950s and 1960s. The 1920s saw militaristic fascist dictatorships
gain control of Germany, Italy, Japan, and Spain.
transitions were evinced through wars of unparalleled scope
and devastation. The First World War destroyed many of
Europe's old monarchies, and weakened France and Britain.
The Second World War saw most of the militaristic dictatorships
in Europe destroyed and saw communism advance into Eastern
Europe and Asia. This led to the Cold War, a forty-year
stand-off between the United States and its allies and
the Soviet Union and theirs. Human civilization was put
into jeopardy by the development of nuclear weapons. After
out-spending the US on weaponry, the US saw a collapse
in the Soviet state, with fragmentation of the former republics,
some re-joining Russia in a commonwealth, others reaching
out toward Western Europe.
Progress and Advances in Medicine
The same century saw vast progress in technology, and a large increase
in life expectancy and standard of living for the majority of humanity.
As the world economy switched from one based upon coal to one based on
oil, new communications and transportation technologies continued to
make the world more united. These developments produced their own concerns,
however, such as environmental degradation.
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