is a Resource of Well Researched Articles, Information, News, and Videos
Follow us on Twitter


Home > History > World History
General Menu

World History: The Neolithic Age

A major change, described by the great prehistorian Gordon Childe as a "revolution", occurred around the 9th millennium BC with the adoption of agriculture. Although research has tended to concentrate on the Fertile Crescent area of the Middle East, archaeology in the Americas, East Asia and Southeast Asia indicates that agricultural systems using different crops and animals may well have developed at similarly early dates. As might be expected, agriculture was particularly important in areas which became the cradles of early civilisations, such as the Yellow River valley in China, the Nile in Egypt, and the Indus Valley. Some peoples, such as Aborigines of Australia and the Bushmen of southern Africa, did not use agriculture until relatively modern times. Recent findings of considerable quantities of grains in the Ohalo II paleolithic site in modern Israel seem to suggest that cereals had been intentionally sown (without the agriculture-associated additional caretaking activities like fertilization, land clearance, etc) since 21000BC (PNAS 101 p9551-9555).

Agriculture led to several major changes. It allowed far larger population densities. It also created, and allowed for, the storage of food surpluses that could support people not directly involved in food production. The development of agriculture allowed the creation of the first cities. The development of cities has led to what has been called civilisation; first in the Sumerian civilisation of lower Mesopotamia (3500 BC), then in Egypt along the Nile (3000 BC) and Harappa in the Indus Valley (2500 BC). There is evidence of elaborate cities with high levels of social and economic complexity. However, these civilisations were so different from one another that they must almost certainly have been independent in origin. At this time developments such as writing, currency, and extensive trade were introduced.

The 2nd millennium BC saw the emergence of complex state societies in Crete, mainland Greece and central Turkey. In China, proto-urban societies may have developed by 2500 BC, but the first dynasty to be identified by archaeology is that of the Shang. In the Americas, civilisations such as the Maya, the Moche and Nazca emerged in Mesoamerica and Peru at the end of the 1st millennium BC.


This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

> Return to World History Reference Section
> Return to History Main Reference Category
Return to


Our Blogs

The Daily News

Other Sites We Run

Online Dating

Solar Power

STD Info Center

Funny Video Clips

Parkour Videos

Hidden Camera Pranks

Kindle Edition Books

Wii Games Magazine

Parp Inhibitors Cancer

Recommended Resources

Google (for search)

CNN (for news)

Our Videos
produced these videos:

Japanese Balloon Bombs

Cute Cats

Cuddly Kittens


ASA Newsletter
The ASA newsletter
contains vital information on research and news related to Allergies, Sinusitis, and Asthma.

Our Contact Info
29030 Town Center Loop E.
Suite 202 - 188
Wilsonville, OR 97070

Privacy Policy

View our Privacy Policy is a reference directory and news resource with a focus on unique news articles. is a customer-friendly news and reference site. is not responsible for the content of external sites listed.
All articles are copyright 2004-2011 by All Rights Reserved.
Online Dating Directory | Online Dating Newsletter | Joe Tracy
Webmaster Articles | Online Dating Industry
| Dating Games