of Film and Movies
Film, commonly referred to as movies,
the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture
shows, flicks, or motion pictures, is a field that encompasses motion
pictures as an art form or as part of the entertainment industry.
Because photographic film historically has been the primary medium
for displaying moving images, academics often refer to this field
as the study of film.
pictures are an art form, a popular form of entertainment, and
a business. Film is produced by recording "real" people
and objects (including played-out fantasy and fakes) with cameras,
and/or by animation.
The Film Making Process
The word film also often refers to photographic film used to make
still photographs, or to the flexible strip of plastic covered
in a light-sensitive silver halide solution, also called filmstock,
on which motion pictures have historically been made.
The images that make up a motion picture are all
individual photographs. But when they appear rapidly in succession,
human eye does
not detect that they are separate images. A common misunderstanding
is that we perceive motion from the successive projection of still
images as a result of persistence of vision, a phenomenon whereby
the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after
the source has been removed. The basis for perceiving animation
or motion in films is actually due to the perception of apparent
motion, first identified as the "phi-phenomenon" as first
investigated by the Gestalt psychologists. Persistence of vision
has more to do with our not perceiving "flicker" as different
images are projected onto the screen.
Motion Pictures Today
Today, many motion pictures are still recorded using specially
designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After
being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector,
which shines light through the film so that the images are displayed
on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound. The soundtrack
can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live-action
pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously.
Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video
technology similar to that used in television production. More
recently, many films are being recorded with a digital video camera
and later projected using digital projectors and/or transferred
to film. One of the major benefits of shooting digitally is that
decisions can be made without waiting for the film stock to be
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